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Szemészeti kifejezések röviditése (angolul)

Accommodation: the change in the refractive power of the eye seeing at different distances
Acorea: no pupil
Adnexa: appendages of the eye (eyelids, conjunctiva, extraocular muscles and glands of the eye)
Amaurosis: blindness without visible ocular lesions
Amblyopia reduced vision in an eye which otherwise is normal
Ametropia imperfection in the refractive power of the eye
Anisocoria pupils of different size
Anisometropia difference in refractive error of the eyes
Ankyloblepharon adhesion between the margins of the eyelids
Anophthalmia no eyeball; also called anophthalmos
Aphakia no lens
Aqueous flare abnormal visibility of a beam of light as it passes through anterior chamber; due to increase in protein content of aqueous humor
Asteroid hyalosis spherical and stellate opacities in the vitreous; made of calcium-lipid combinations
Astigmatism different degrees of refraction in the various meridians of the cornea
Blepharitis inflammation of the eyelids
Blepharo- prefix referring to eyelid
Blepharochalasis relaxation of the skin of the eyelid
Blepharophimosis narrowing of the palpebral fissure; eye cannot be opened to normal extent
Blepharospasm spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle resulting in forceful closure of the eyelids
Blind spot corresponds to the optic disk which has no photoreceptors
Bulla a bleb or blister; plural is bullae
Buphthalmia enlargement of the eye, especially in glaucoma; also called buphthalmos
Canthotomy incision of the canthus
Canthus the angle formed by the meeting of the upper and lower eyelids; specified as lateral or temporal, and medial or nasal
Cataract pathological opacity of the lens
Chalazion granuloma of the Meibomian glands; plural is chalazia
Chemosis edema of the conjunctiva
Chorio- prefix or suffix referring to choroid
Chorioretinitis inflammation of the choroid and retina
Choristoma a mass of tissue that is normal histologically, but not for the site in which it is located
Cloquet’s canal space where primary vitreous was; passes through the middle of the vitreous from the optic disk to the lens; also called the hyaloid canal
Coloboma a congenital fissure or cleft of any part of the eye or eyelid
Conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva
Coria- prefix or suffix referring to pupil
Corectopia abnormal position of the pupil
Cyclitis inflammation of the ciliary body
Cyclo- prefix or suffix referring to ciliary body
Cyclocryotherapy freezing of the ciliary body, usually as a focal application in the control of glaucoma
Cyclodialysis tearing away of the ciliary body from the sclera; also done surgically to manage glaucoma
Cyclodiathermy application of heat to the ciliary body, usually to cause focal destruction in the control of glaucoma
Cycloplegia paralysis of the ciliary muscles resulting in loss of accommodation
Cycloplegic a drug that temporarily paralyzes the ciliary muscles; these drugs also cause pupillary dilatation due to iris sphincter paralysis
Dacryo- prefix referring to tears or lacrimal gland
Dacryoadenitis inflammation of the lacrimal gland
Dacryocystitis inflammation of the lacrimal sac
Dark adaptation the adjustment of the retina and iris (pupil) to decreased illumination
Dermoid a congenital mass (choristoma) consisting of skin and its dermal appendages
Descemetocele protrusion of Descemet’s membrane through the floor of an ulcer
Diopter unit of refractive power
Diplopia double vision
Distichia one eyelash of a second row of eyelashes; plural is distichiae
Distichiasis the presence of two rows of cilia on one eyelid
Districhiasis more than one cilium growing from a follicle
Dyscoria irregular pupil shape
Ectasia dilatation or distention with thinning, particularly of the sclera or cornea
Ectropion eversion of the eyelid
Emmetropia no refractive errors
Endophthalmitis inflammation of the inner structures of the eye
Enophthalmia abnormal recession of the eye into the orbit; also called enophthalmos
Entropion inversion of the eyelid
Enucleation removal of the eyeball
Epiphora overflow of tears onto the face
Esophoria tendency of the eyes to deviate medially
Esotropia manifest inward deviation of the eyes (crossed eyes); convergent strabismus
Evisceration removal of the contents of the eye with retention of the fibrous coat
Exenteration removal of the eyeball and all soft tissues within the bony orbit
Exophoria tendency of the eyes to deviate laterally
Exophthalmia abnormal protrusion of the eyeball; also called exophthalmos
Exotropia manifest outward deviation of one or both eyes; divergent strabismus
Extorsion tilting of upper part of the vertical meridian of the eye away from the midline of the face
Far point the point at which an object must be placed to have a sharp image on the retina of the unaccommodated eye
Farsightedness hyperopia
Floaters particles in the vitreous
Fornix the junction of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctivas
Fovea small depression in the macula adapted for most acute vision in many primates, birds and fish
Freckle increased melanin content of a cell
Fundus the internal aspect of the ocular posterior segment, seen with an ophthalmoscope
Fusion the combining of images received by both eyes into one image
Glaucoma pathological increase in intraocular pressure
Gonioscopy examination of the drainage angle
Granula iridica another name for corpus nigra
Hamartoma abnormal growth or malformation of tissue normally found in that site
Haw non-veterinary term for the third eyelid
Hemeralopia day blindness
Hemianopia loss of about one-half of the visual field
Heterochromia iridis difference in color of the irides or of one iris
Heterophoria tendency of the eyes to deviate
Heterotropia manifest deviation of the eye in any direction in which binocular fixation is impossible
Hippus spontaneous rhythmic movements of the iris
Hordeolum, external infection of the glands of Moll or Zeis; stye
Hordeolum, internal Meibomian gland infection
Hyal- prefix referring to vitreous
Hyalitis inflammation of the vitreous body
Hydrophthalmia marked enlargement of the eye from glaucoma; also called hydrophthalmos
Hyp- prefix referring to anterior chamber
Hypermetropia hyperopia
Hyperopia refractive error in which the focal point of light rays from a distant object is behind the retina (farsightedness)
Hypertropia manifest upward deviation of the eyes
Hyphema blood in the anterior chamber
Hypophoria tendency of the eyes to deviate downward
Hypopyon pus in the anterior chamber
Injection congestion of blood vessels
Inner relative to an imaginary point centrally located within the eye; closer to this imaginary point
Intorsion tilting of the upper part of the vertical meridian of the eye toward the midline of the face
Iridencleisis incarceration of a portion of the iris in a wound at the limbus, either accidentally or as an operative procedure for management of glaucoma
Irido- prefix referring to iris
Iridocyclitis inflammation of the iris and ciliary body; also known as anterior uveitis
Iridocycloplegia paralysis of the iris sphincter and ciliary muscles resulting in pupillary dilatation and loss of accommodation
Iridodonesis vibration of the iris with movement of the eye, indicating loss of lens support
Iris bombé bowing forward of the iris due to build up of aqueous humor in the posterior chamber (due to total or substantial posterior synechia)
Keratectomy excision of various parts of the cornea
Keratitis inflammation of the cornea
Kerato- prefix referring to cornea
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca dry cornea and conjunctiva as a result of lacrimal gland dysfunction
Keratoconus cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea
Keratoglobus enlarged and globular cornea
Keratoplasty corneal grafting
Lacrimation production of tears, especially in excess
Lagophthalmos inability to close the eyelids completely
Lenticonus conical projection of the anterior or posterior surface of the lens
Lentiglobus globular projection of the anterior or posterior surface of the lens
Leukocoria lightening of the pupil reflection so that it looks white to tan rather than almost black
Leukoma a white corneal opacity; adherent leukoma – iris adherent to cornea
Limbus boundary between the cornea and sclera
Macula a small spot or colored zone; a moderate corneal scar; region of high cone density in some primate retinas
Macula lutea the small, avascular region of the retina surrounding the fovea
Megalocornea congenitally enlarged cornea
Microphthalmia abnormally small eyeball; also called microphthalmos
Miosis constriction of the pupil
Miotic medication causing miosis
Mydriasis dilatation of the pupil
Mydriatic medication causing mydriasis
Myopia refractive error in which the point of focus for rays of light from distant objects is in front of the retina (nearsightedness)
Near point the point at which an object must be placed to have a sharp image on the retina of a fully accommodated eye
Nearsightedness myopia
Nebula slight haziness to the cornea; gray opacity of the cornea
Nevus melanotic tissue consisting of an aggregation of melanin containing cells
Nyctalopia night blindness
Nystagmus an involuntary, rapid movement of the eyeball, either horizontal, rotary or vertical
Ocular anterior segment the anterior portion of the globe (cornea, iris and anterior sclera)
Ocular posterior segment that portion of the eye posterior to the iris
Oculist ophthalmologist
OD abbreviation for right eye (oculus dexter, Latin)
Ophthalmologist a doctor versed or expert in ophthalmology (study of the eye)
Optometrist person trained to correct vision disturbances related to refractive errors
OS abbreviation for left eye (oculus sinister, Latin)
OU abbreviation for both eyes or each eye (oculus uterque, Latin)
Outer relative to an imaginary point centrally located within the eye; further from this imaginary point
Pannus superficial vascularization of the cornea
Panophthalmitis inflammation involving all coats of the eye
Penetrating a wound entering an ocular structure, but not going completely through it
Perforating a wound going completely through an ocular structure
Phako- prefix referring to lens
Photophobia sensitivity to and discomfort from light
Phthisis bulbi shrunken and atrophic globe
Pinguecula proliferation of bulbar conjunctiva near limbus, especially medially, seen as yellow spot in elderly people
Plasmoid aqueous fibrin in the anterior chamber
Polycoria more than one pupil, each having sphincter muscle
Presbyopia loss of accommodation as a result of aging
Proptosis forward protrusion of the eyeball, usually of traumatic origin
Pseudopterygium conjunctival scar attached to the cornea
Pterygium triangular thickening of bulbar conjunctiva advancing onto the cornea with apex toward pupil
Ptosis drooping of the upper eyelid
Pupil the opening in the center of the iris
Refraction deviation in the course of rays of light when passing from one transparent medium into another of different density; determination of refractive errors of the eye
Refractive error ametropia
Refractive media the transparent parts of the eye having refractive power
Relucent reflecting light
Retinoscope a device for the objective determination of refractive error
Retroillumination to illuminate from behind by reflecting light from a deeper structure
Scotoma a blind or partially blind zone in the visual field
Sicca dry
Squint strabismus or heterotropia
Strabismus manifest deviation of the eye in which binocular fixation is impossible; squint; heterotropia
Staphyloma ectasia of cornea or sclera, which is lined by uveal tissue
Stye infection of glands of Zeis or Moll; external hordeolum
Symblepharon adhesion of one or both eyelids to the eyeball
Synchysis softening or liquefaction of the vitreous
Synechia adhesion of the iris to cornea (anterior s), or lens (posterior s); plural is synechiae
Syneresis the process of liquefaction of the vitreous
Tarso- prefix referring to eyelids
Tarsorrhaphy suturing together of the eyelids
Tonography measurement of ability of aqueous humor to leave eye
Tonometry measurement of intraocular pressure
Transillumination passing a light beam through a structure
Trichiasis normally placed, but abnormally directed cilium that causes trauma to the eyeball
Umbraculum another name for corpus nigra
Uveitis inflammation of the uveal tract
Visual field the region in space which can be seen without shifting the gaze; can apply to that of both eyes or of each eye separately
Walleye white discoloration of iris
Zonulolysis chemical lysis of the zonules to facilitate removal of the lens during cataract surgery

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